Agreement Ended The War

Both sides agreed to the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Laos and Cambodia and the banning of bases and troop movements by these countries. It was agreed that the DMZ would remain a provisional demarcation line on the 17th parallel, with possible reunification of the country “by peaceful means”. An international monitoring commission of Canadians, Hungarians, Poles and Indonesians would be set up, with 1,160 inspectors overseeing the agreement. Under the agreement, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu will remain in office until the elections. The North Vietnamese accepted the “right of the South Vietnamese people to self-determination” and stated that they did not inspire military movement throughout the DMZ and that there would be no use of force for the country`s reassurance. Early attempts to negotiate a peace settlement failed and French and Spanish diplomats signed the Family Pact, a treaty that put Spain at war with Britain. The British Prime Minister, Lord Bute, continued secret and informal discussions with the French diplomat √Čtienne-Fran√©ois de Stainville, Duke of Choiseul, and they reached an informal agreement in June 1762. Mr. Bute promised fairly generous terms and the two countries agreed on an ambassadorial exchange in September. On January 8, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson edited the post-war goals, the Fourteen Points. He outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements and democracy. While the term was not used, self-determination was adopted. He called for an end to the negotiations of war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the central powers from the occupied territories, the creation of a Polish state, the revival of European borders along ethnic lines and the establishment of a society of nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all States.

[9] [n. 3] He called for a just and democratic peace, uncompromisingd by territorial annexation. The fourteen points were based on the study of the survey, a team of about 150 advisers, led by foreign policy adviser Edward M. House, on the topics that will likely appear in the expected peace conference. [10] France had lost 1.3 million soldiers, 25% of whom were French men aged 18 to 30 and 400,000 civilians. France had been more physically damaged than any other nation (the red zone), the most industrialized region and the source of most of the north-eastern coal and iron ore had been devastated and, in the final days of the war, mines had been flooded and railways, bridges and factories had been destroyed.) [33] Clemenceau intended to ensure France`s security by weakening Germany economically, militarily, territorially and by ousting Germany as the leading steel producer in Europe. [33] [34] [35] [35] [short incomplete quotation] The British economist and Versailler negotiator, John Maynard Keynes, summed up this position by trying to “set aside and undo what had been achieved since 1870 by Germany`s progress.” [36] Initially, a “Council of Ten” (composed of two delegates from the United Kingdom, France, the United States, Italy and Japan) met formally to decide the conditions for peace. This Council has been replaced by the “Council of Five” formed by the foreign ministers of each country to discuss minor issues.

French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George and US President Woodrow Wilson formed the “Big Four” (at a time when they became the “Big Three” after the temporary withdrawal of Vittorio Emanuele Orlando). The four men met in 145 closed meetings to take all the important decisions that were then ratified by the assembly as a whole. The smaller powers participated in a weekly “plenary conference” that discussed the issues in a general forum but did not make any decisions.