When U.S. tariffs fell dramatically, global markets were also increasingly liberalized. Global trade has undergone a rapid transformation. The RTAA was a U.S. law, but it provided the first widely used system of guidelines for bilateral trade agreements. The United States and European nations began to avoid beggar neighborhood policies that pursued national trade objectives at the expense of other nations. Instead, countries have begun to realize the benefits of trade cooperation. 24. For interest groups organized on the commercial issue, see Memo, Office of the Special Assistant on Foreign Trade (SAFT), 7 May 1934, “List of Foreign Trade Associations and their Inter-Relationshps,” General Records of the SAFT (Record Group 20), National Archives.
It was during this period that Jeff Frieden argued most convincingly about the influence of financial interests on American foreign policy. See “Sectoral Conflict in U.S. Foreign Economic Policy, 1914-1940,” this volume. 88. For the creation of the old banks, see Adams, Frederick C., Economic Diplomacy: the Export-Import Bank and American Foreign Policy 1934-1939 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1976), chap. 3.Google Scholar 31. On the problem of trade policy fragmentation, see “The urgent need to develop an appropriate and coordinated method for managing trade policy”, memo for the President, in Hull, near FDR, 27 October 1933, DE 614 A; Executive committee report. The Trade Promotion Authority aims to create opportunities for domestic workers, just as Roosevelt`s RTAA supported job creation on the national territory through trade in New Deal programs. The TPA is an important element of trade negotiations because it allows Congress to define the terms of trade negotiations, consultations at Congress during negotiations and legislative procedures for voting on agreements. 3.
United States Tariff Commission, Operation of the Trade Agreements Program, July 1934 to April 1948 (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1948), Part 1, 84.Google Scholar By the Great Depression, tariffs were at historic highs. Members of Congress have generally entered into informal quid-pro-quo agreements, in which they voted in favour of other members` preferential tariffs in order to gain the support of their members. No one took into account the overall toll for U.S. consumers or exporters. This practice is commonly referred to as logrolling. Roosevelt and key members of his government made sure to put an end to the practice.  Between 1934 and 1939, the Roosevelt administration concluded trade agreements with 19 countries under the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act: Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. After 1945, the customs negotiation procedure established under the RTAA programme formed the model of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the agreement signed in 1947 by 23 countries, which formed the framework for multilateral trade liberalization after the Second World War.