On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with multiparty support with 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, Independent 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only “suspended.”   The agreement between the United States of America and Mexico and Canada (USMCA) is a trade agreement between these parties. The USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or eliminate NAFTA if the renegotiations fail.  After the election, Trump made a series of changes that influenced trade relations with other countries. The exit from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significantly larger increase in tariffs with China were some of the steps he took, which reinforced the fact that he was serious about changing NAFTA.
 Much of the debate about the virtues and errors of the USMCA resembles the debate on all free trade agreements (FTAs), such as the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty and the role of commercial, labour, environmental and consumer interests in the development of the language of trade agreements. On December 9, 2019, Fox News reported that negotiators from the three countries reached an agreement on implementation, paving the way for a final agreement within 24 hours and ratification by all three parties before the end of the year. Mexico has agreed to impose a minimum wage of $16 per hour for Mexican auto workers by a “neutral” third party. Mexico, which imports all of its aluminum, also objected to the provisions relating to the U.S. steel and aluminum content of automotive components.  The U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA in the United States, “CUSMA” in Canada and “T-MEC” in Mexico) came into force on July 1, 2020. The trade agreement between the three countries replaces the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Often, analyses of the free trade agreement show that its effects on both countries depend on the difference in value between the Canadian dollar and the U.S.
dollar. In 1990-91, the Canadian dollar rose sharply against the U.S. dollar, making Canadian industrial products much more expensive to purchase U.S. products and making U.S. industrial products significantly cheaper for Canadians who no longer had to pay high tariffs on them. For the first time, the agreement is specifically aimed at agricultural biotechnology to support 21st century innovations in agriculture. The text covers all biotechnology, including new technologies such as gene processing, while the trans-Pacific Partnership text covered only traditional rDNA technology. In particular, the United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on provisions to improve information exchange and cooperation on trade-related issues in agricultural biotechnology. On December 10, 2019, the three countries reached a revised USMCA agreement. On January 29, 2020, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs Chrystia Freeland introduced the USMCA C-4 Transposition Act in the House of Commons and passed the first reading without a registered vote.
On February 6, the bill passed second reading in the House of Commons by 275 votes to 28, with the Bloc Québécois voting against and all other parties voting in its favour, and it was referred to the Standing Committee on International Trade.    On 27 February 2020, the committee voted to send the bill to Parliament for third reading, without amendments.